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membrane, membrane bioreactors, membrane filtration, wastewater treatment, freshwater


In the face of water shortages, population growth, and climate change, improvements in wastewater treatment operations and technology are necessary to reduce the over exploitation of freshwater resources around the world. Conventional wastewater treatment operations have succeeded in the past to treat industrial and municipal wastewater, however with increasing water demands and ever-changing environmental regulations, new and improved technology is necessary for a sustainable future. Membrane filtration and membrane bioreactors have increased in popularity as a new and improved method for wastewater treatment. Membrane bioreactors as well as various membrane filtration systems were studied in this report including their unit operations, applications, and proven removal efficiencies for various wastewater contaminants. Various wastewater treatment studies have proven membranes and membrane bioreactors have superior effluent quality compared to conventional wastewater treatment processes with studies showing ultrafiltration membranes capable of removing 99% and 98% of fats and suspended substances, and over 94% removal of COD and BOD5 in slaughterhouse wastewater.1 A separate study comparing an activated sludge (CAS) system, a membrane bioreactor (MBR), and a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) in the treatment of textile wastewater concluded that the MBR was the most efficient method of wastewater treatment, of which the chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), and color removal efficiency were 91%, 99.4%, and 80% respectively.


Faculty of Applied Science & Technology (FAST)

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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.