Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Publication Date



Energy generation, Noise (Sound), Optimization, Wind farms, Design, Turbines, Genetic algorithms, Governments, Space, Tradeoffs, Wakes


Wind farm design deals with the optimal placement of turbines in a wind farm. Past studies have focused on energymaximization, cost-minimization or revenue-maximization objectives. As land is more extensively exploited for onshore wind farms, wind farms are more likely to be in close proximity with human dwellings. Therefore governments, developers, and landowners have to be aware of wind farms’ environmental impacts. After considering land constraints due to environmental features, noise generation remains the main environmental/health concern for wind farm design. Therefore, noise generation is sometimes included in optimization models as a constraint. Here we present continuous-location models for layout optimization that take noise and energy as objective functions, in order to fully characterize the design and performance spaces of the optimal wind farm layout problem. Based on Jensen’s wake model and ISO-9613-2 noise calculations, we used single- and multiobjective genetic algorithms (NSGA-II) to solve the optimization problem. Preliminary results from the biobjective optimization model illustrate the trade-off between energy generation and noise production by identifying several key parts of Pareto frontiers. In addition, comparison of single-objective noise and energy optimization models show that the turbine layouts and the inter-turbine distance distributions are different when considering these objectives individually. The relevance of these results for wind farm layout designers is explored.


ASME 2012 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference August 12–15, 2012 Chicago, Illinois, USA


Faculty of Applied Science & Technology (FAST)

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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Original Publication Citation

Amon, C., Kwong, Y. W., Moran, J., Morgenroth, M., Romeo, D., & Zhang, P. Y. (2012). "Wind Farm Layout Optimization Considering Energy Generation and Noise Propagation."
Proceedings of the ASME 2012 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference. Volume 3: 38th Design Automation Conference, Parts A and B. pp. 323-332. ASME.


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